Functional pathology tests differ from standard pathology tests as they aim to identify the root cause of ill health. This is extremely beneficial for the treatment of long term, chronic health issues.



The SIBO test is a breath test that uses a substrate of either lactulose or glucose. Additionally, it is a non-invasive test that you can do from home. The bacteria ferment the lactulose and glucose, producing methane and hydrogen gases. Moreover, lactulose is the preferred substrate we use as it has a higher level of accuracy than glucose.

Lactulose is the preferred substrate we use as it has a higher level of accuracy than glucose.  It’s important to test for SIBO to establish what type you have as this will direct your treatment.


Comprehensive Digestive Stool Analysis or Complete Microbiome Map can be useful in identifying the causes of gut issues. Specifically, they identify the following:

  • Beneficial bacteria
  • Pathogenic bacteria
  • Yeast and fungus
  • Parasites
  • Digestive Enzymes including:

An enzyme that assists in the breakdown of proteins, fats and carbohydrates.  Decreased levels of elastase can indicate reduced hydrochloric acid output in the stomach and / or pancreatic enzyme insufficiency.


A marker of fat in fasces, moreover, high levels can indicate fat malabsorption due to a deficiency in pancreatic lipase or bile acids.   This can be an indicator of SIBO, as the bacteria in SIBO deconjugate bile acids causing them to be ineffective in binding fats.

Secretory IgA

The main antibody is the mucus secretions of the gastrointestinal tract.  Its role is to remove unwanted pathogens from the gut.

Short chain fatty acids

Having adequate amounts of SCFA provides many benefits to the overall health of the gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, it is essential to treat dysbiotic bacteria with herbs or antibiotics and, consequently, use a low FODMAP and low resistant starch diet as a temporary measure.

Beta-glucuronidase enzyme

In the liver, the phase 2 liver detoxification process binds estrogen to glucuronic acid. Intestinal cells and specific gut bacteria produce the beta-glucuronidase enzyme, which then breaks the bond between estrogen and glucuronic acid, transforming the estrogen into a toxic form. Consequently, the liver will rebind the toxic estrogen with glucuronic acid once more. This causes a build up of toxic estrogens.


The Organic Acids Test (OATs) offers a comprehensive metabolic snapshot of a patient’s overall health with over 70 markers. Additionally, it provides valuable insights into various physiological processes and potential imbalances. It provides an accurate evaluation of intestinal yeast and bacteria. Abnormally high levels of these microorganisms can cause or worsen behavior disorders, hyperactivity, movement disorders, fatigue, and immune function. Many people with chronic illnesses and neurological disorders often excrete several abnormal organic acids in their urine.

Markers include:
  • Oxalate
  • Methylmalonic acid (tissue stores for Vitamin B12)
  • Glutathione
  • Methylation, toxic exposure
  • Ammonia
  • Mitochondrial markers (Krebs Cycle Metabolites)
  • Neurotransmitter metabolites
  • Vitamin B6
  • Vitamin B5
  • Vitamin B2
  • Vitamin C
  • Coenzyme Q10


Vaginal infections, including bacterial vaginosis (BV), vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), and trichomoniasis (TV), are among the most common reasons for which women seek medical investigation.

Complex ecosystems of microbes reside in the female reproductive tract. The vagina consists of trillions of microorganisms — mostly bacteria, plus some fungi and viruses. A disruption in this ecosystem, usually a deficiency of Lactobacillus and overgrowth of pathogenic bacteria, may result in possible infection and unwanted symptoms.

An estimated 75% of women will have at least one episode of VVC, TV or BV in their lifetime and over 30% of women test positive for BV at any given time, with prevalence rates varying over different populations studied.

The vagina is home to a complex ecosystem of organisms that may include bacteria, viruses, parasites and yeasts. Some of these organisms are important in keeping us healthy as they act to discourage other potential pathogens from thriving. Disruptions in balance of any of these can lead to infections and/or uncomfortable symptoms. Every vaginal microbiome is different and factors such as age, hormonal disruptions and even antibiotic/probiotic use can contribute to changes


The HLA DR/DQ gene analyses two important genomic markers called HLA-DQB1 and HLA-DR that can reveal important information relating to autoimmune disorders as well as inflammatory disorders. Approximately 25% of the world’s population is said to possess one of the 10 susceptible types of HLA DR/DQ genes.

The HLA DR/DQ gene test shows haplotypes (gene combinations) that show susceptibility to mould, Lyme, and conditions. The report contains a Rosetta Stone, developed by Dr. Ritchie Shoemaker which offers a summary of the various susceptible genetic types, with directions for interpretation.


MARCoNS (Multiple Antibiotic Resistant Coagulase Negative Staphylococci) is an antibiotic-resistant staph infection that resides deep in the nose. MARCoNS are very slow growing however, can have such an effect on one’s health leading to chronic fatigue, hormonal imbalances, and more.  Consider the MARCoNS test when dealing with mold-related problems and when there are present low MSH results. For those that mold is the issue, the first step is living and working in a relatively mold-free place.


Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone (MSH) has multiple anti-inflammatory and neurohormonal regulatory functions, exerting regulatory control on peripheral cytokine release, along with both anterior and posterior pituitary function.

In mould illness, over 95% of patients generally exhibit low MSH levels. This means increased susceptibility to mould illness, ongoing fatigue, pain, hormone abnormalities, mood swings, and much more. As MSH is a hormone known as a regulatory neuropeptide, it controls many other hormones, inflammation pathways, and basic defenses against invading microbes. A deficiency in MSH can lead to the development of chronic sleep disorders with non-restful sleep and a reduction in endorphin production, resulting in chronic pain. 


Hair metal and mineral analysis measure the nutrient and toxic metal content of hair. Since hair’s constituents are determined by the entry of substances from external sources and from substances that enter it from the bloodstream, it makes an ideal medium for analysis.

Hair can contain minerals and metals and can accumulate over long periods of time. One sample can measure a wide range of metals and minerals to provide the status of cellular activity and nutrient metabolism. Minerals catalyze every physiological function in the body.

The hair’s unchanged structure fixes the minerals in it, and levels in the hair do not undergo significant changes once that portion of hair has grown. The analysis accurately provides concentrations of minerals that have accumulated in the hair tissue over the hair growth period, approximately one to three months.

Exposure to pollution, chemicals, and poisons can cause heavy metal toxicity. It is a growing threat to the population as metals deposit in body tissues leading to significant developmental and neurological damage.  Heavy metal toxicities can also lead to numerous health conditions including those affecting the cardiovascular, endocrine, immune, muscle, skeletal, skin, and nervous systems.


  • Chronic fatigue
  • Chronic pain / fibromyalgia
  • Chronic gut issues
  • Chronic skin issues (rosacea, acne, eczema)
  • Headaches
  • Migraines
  • Vertigo
  • Chronic sinusitis & rhinitis
  • Chronic vaginal thrush / bacterial vaginosis
  • Chronic insomnia
  • Hormonal imbalances (heavy periods, irregular periods, PMS, PMDD)
  • Anxiety & depression


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